Project management processes. These processes ensure the effective flow of the project throughout its life cycle. These processes encompass the tools and techniques involved in applying the skills and capabilities described in the Knowledge Areas.
Product-oriented processes. These processes specify and create the project’s product. Product oriented processes are typically defined by the project life cycle and vary by application area as well as the phase of the product life cycle. The scope of the project cannot be defined without some basic understanding of how to create the specified product. For example, various construction techniques and tools need to be considered when determining the overall complexity of the house to be built.
The PMBOK® Guide describes only the project management processes. Although product-oriented processes
are outside the scope of this document, they should not be ignored by the project manager and project team. Project
management processes and product-oriented processes overlap and interact throughout the life of a project.
For instance, in software development projects, the product-oriented processes may include requirements gathering, analysis, design, coding, integration, testing, implementation and training. These are unique to the software development projects type and the methodology used (RUP, SCRUM, Agile, XP, Waterfall).
Project Management is not the same as Operations Management. They’re quite different.
Project Management is temporary having a beginning and end, while Operations Management is permanent, continuous.
The goal of PM is to create unique products, services or results. The goal of OM is to produce a repetitive product or service.
A product in PM (a new electric car) is not the same as a product in OM (mass production of that new electric car).
Project is a temporary endeavor to produce a product, service or result. Example: an operations systems for the freight forwarding division of a company.
Program is a group of projects that together may work towards the same objectives. Example: the previous project, plus a system to manage the rail transportation business unit, a system to digitalize any image into the company repository, and a mobile app for truck drivers. All of them are related between them, are for the same customer.
Portfolio is a group of programs and single projects, not related to each other. All the projects executed by a software factory company for all its customers.
In short: a portfolio can have several programs and projects, a program can have several projects, and a project is just a project.
The PMI’s PMBOK 5th Edition 10 Knowledge Areas are:
- Integration Management
- Scope Management
- Time Management
- Cost Management
- Quality Management
- Human Resources Management
- Communications Management
- Risks Management
- Stakeholders Management
- Procurement Management
There are different activities within each process, each one having their own inputs, outputs, tools and techniques.
An Introduction to PMBOK Guide 5th Edition: Knowledge Areas, Processes and Process Groups
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The PMI’s PMBOK 5 Processes Groups are:
- Monitoring and Controlling
They are supposed to follow the natural flow of activities done througout a project life cycle.